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History - Europe in the 20th Century: Internet Resources

Research guide for students studying Europe in the 20th Century.

What are Primary Sources?

A primary source is a document or a physical object that was written or created during the time under study by witnesses who experienced the event or condition first-hand.

Primary sources are the raw materials of history and include items such as diaries, speeches, manuscripts, letters, interviews, news film footage, official records, autobiographies. Primary sources can also include creative works (poetry, drama, novels, art) or relics and artifacts (pottery, clothing, buildings, furniture).

Foundation tablet Nanaia Louvre (Wikimedia Commons)

What is a secondary source?

Secondary sources interpret and analyze primary sources and are one or more steps removed from the event that is being reported. Examples include journal articles, which interpret or review previous findings; textbooks, criticisms; encyclopedias; commentaries.

Finding Historical Information on the Web

Now is a terrific time to be researching history because more and more content from special collections and archives is now being made available on the web in digital format.

Historical Newspapers

Find historical newspapers online!


Try Google's Advanced News Archive Search to find scanned images from historial newspapers.

To limit your search to a particular date range, use the "date" boxes.