Mother-infant attachment became a leading topic of developmental research following the publication of John Bowlby's studies (Hunt, 1993).
Note: If you refer to the author's name in a sentence you do not have to include the name again as part of your in-text citation, instead include the year of publication following his/her name:
Hunt (1993) noted that mother-infant attachment became a leading topic of developmental research after the publication of John Bowlby's studies.
Homeless individuals commonly come from families who are riddled with problems and marital disharmony, and are alienated from their parents. They have often been physically and even sexually abused, have relocated frequently, and many of them may be asked to leave home or are actually thrown out, or alternatively are placed in group homes or in foster care. They often have no one to care for them and no one knows them intimately.
Rokach, A. (2005). The causes of loneliness in homeless youth. The Journal of Psychology, 139, 469-480.
Example: Incorrect Paraphrasing
The homeless come from families with problems. Frequently, they have been physically or sexually abused, or have lived in group homes. Usually no one cares for them or knows them intimately (Rokach, 2005).
Note: In this incorrect example the writing is too similar to the original source. The student only changed or removed a few words and has not phrased the ideas in a new way.
Example: Correct Paraphrasing
Many homeless experience isolation in part due to suffering from abuse or neglect during their childhood (Rokach, 2005).
Note: The example keeps the idea of the original writing but phrases it in a new way.
|Number of Authors/Editors||First Time Paraphrased||Second and Subsequent Times Paraphrased||First Time Quoting||Second and Subsequent Times Quoting|
(Case & Daristotle, 2011)
(Case & Daristotle, 2011)
|(Case & Daristotle, 2011, p. 57)||(Case & Daristotle, 2011, p. 57)|
|Three or more||(Case et al., 2011)||(Case et al., 2011)||(Case et al., 2011, p. 57)||(Case et al., 2011, p. 57)|
|Type of Group||First Time Paraphrased||Second and Subsequent Times Paraphrased||First Time Quoting||Second and Subsequent Times Quoting|
|Groups readily identified through abbreviations||
National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH, 2003)
|National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH, 2003, p. 5)||(NIMH, 2003, p. 5)|
|Groups with no abbreviations||(University of Pittsburgh, 2005)||(University of Pittsburgh, 2005)||(University of Pittsburgh, 2005, p. 2)||(University of Pittsburgh, 2005, p. 2)|
Note that in most cases where a personal author is not named, a group author may be cited instead (eg. Statistics Canada). However, in certain cases, such as religious ancient texts, the author is unknown. Where you'd normally put the author's last name, instead use the first one, two, or three words from the title. Don't count initial articles like "A", "An" or "The". You should provide enough words to make it clear which work you're referring to from your References List.
If the title in the References list is in italics, italicize the words from the title in the in-text citation.
If you are citing an article, a chapter of a book or a page from a website, put the words in double quotation marks.
Capitalize the titles using title case (every major word is capitalized) even if the reference list entry uses sentence case (only first word is capitalized).
(Cell Biology, 2012, p. 157)
("Nursing," 2011, p. 9)
No Known Date of Publication:
Where you'd normally put the year of publication, instead use the letters "n.d.".
(Smith, n.d., p. 200)