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Turabian Citation Style Guide 9th Edition: General Guidelines

This guide will help you cite sources in the Turabian/Chicago Style.

About Turabian Style

Turabian style uses two basic documentation systems: notes-bibliography style and author-date style.

The 9th edition of A Manual for Writers has been updated to align with the 17th edition of The Chicago Manual of Style. This edition more fully addresses digital sources in academic research.

DOIs (pp. 141; 148; 220)

A Digital Object Identifier (DOI) is a unique alphanumeric string that is used to identify a certain source (typically journal articles).

Example: doi:10.1080/14622200410001676305


If a DOI is listed on an electronic source it is included in the reference.  When there is a choice between using a DOI or a URL, it is recommended that a DOI be used because they are more stable than most URLs. 


Append the DOI to in your citation. In addition, be sure to include that date you accessed the online source according to which style you are using: Bibliography style or Reference List style (p. 141).


For more information on DOIs and how they pertain to journal articles, check out pages 141, 148, and 220 of the Turabian Manual (9th ed.).

Basic Style Examples

There are two primary citation forms of citation in Chicago/Turabian. Please consult your instructor on which style to use. Be sure to pay attention to details like capitalization, abbreviations, and indentations.

Notes-Bibliography Style (pp. 144-215):

When using the bibliography style of citing your sources, insert a superscript number at the end of the sentence that you are refering to.  The notes can then be arranged in numerical order at the foot of the page (Footnotes) or at the end of the paper (Endnotes). The notes should include the complete bibliographic information when cited the first time.When given a choice between using a footnote or an endnote, it is usually best to use a footnote because they are easier for the reader to follow because the notes are placed at the foot of each page instead of at end of the paper (p. 155).

In-text example:

He argues that "in an uncertain world, printed materials can be put to use in ways that make them powerful."1

Footnote or Endnote example:

   1. Adrian Johns, The Nature of the Book: Print and Knowledge in the Making (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1998), 623.

Author-Date (pp. 216-278):

Use a parenthetical citation next to your reference. This citation should include the author, date, and relevant page numbers. Include a reference list of all sources used at the end of the paper. In some cases, you also include sources you consulted but did not cite.

In-text example:

He argues that "in an uncertain world, printed materials can be put to use in ways that make them powerful” (Johns 1998, 623).

Reference list example:

Johns, Adrian. 1998. The nature of the book: Print and knowledge in the making. Chicago: Univ. 

   of Chicago Press.

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