Skip to Main Content

Turabian Citation Style Guide 9th Edition: A. Interviews & Personal Communications

This guide will help you cite sources in the Turabian/Chicago Style.

About Citing Other Items

For each type of source in this guide, the general form and specific examples will be provided for both the Notes-Bibliography and the Author-Date style options of Turabian.

This information and several of the examples were drawn from A manual for writers of research papers, theses, and dissertations (9th edition). Numbers in parentheses refer to specific pages in the manual.

For further information, please ask your instructor or refer to the Turabian manual.

Interviews & Personal Communications

For Notes-Bibliography style, cite interviews in the notes and only include it in the bibliography if it is vital to your argument. Include the name of person being interviewed, name of the person conducting the interview, location and date of the interview, and location of the transcripts if applicable. To cite conversations, e-mails, text messages, include the name of the person, type of communication, and date (pp. 194-5). For information on how to handle anonymous interviews, see pages 194 and 195 of the Manual.


For an interview using Author-Date style, include a reference list entry that has the name of the interviewee, date, name of interviewer, location and date of interview. Also provide the location of the transcripts if applicable. Place the name of the person being interviewed in the parenthetical citation. To cite converstations, e-mails, or text message communications, only provide a parenthetical citation or weave the information into the text of your paper. See the Manual for examples on how to do this (p. 258).


General Format

 Notes-Bibliography Style (pp. 194-5):
      Note Number. First Name of Interviewee Last Name of Interviewee, interview by Name of Interviewer, Location of Interview, Date.


      7.  David Shields, interview by author, Seattle, February 15, 2011.

      8.  Steven Tyler, e-mail message to author, June 28, 2013.

 General Format

Author-Date Style (p. 258)
      Parenthetical Citation:
      (Last Name of Interviewee Year)



       Reference List Entry:
      Parenthetical Entry:

      (Spock 1974)

      (Joe Perry, June 28, 2013. text message to author)

     Reference List Entry:

Learn More